A closer look at what snoring is as well as its causes, consequences, and treatments.
Snoring is estimated to affect 57% of men and 40% of women in the United States. It even occurs in up to 27% of children.
These statistics demonstrate snoring is widespread, but its severity and health implications can vary. Snoring can be light, occasional, and unconcerning, or it may be the sign of a serious underlying sleep-related breathing disorder.
Knowing the basics about snoring — what causes it, when it’s dangerous, how to treat it, and how to cope with it — can facilitate better health and eliminate a common cause of sleep complaints.
What causes snoring?
It’s often hard to tell why one person snores and another one doesn’t. These are common causes of snoring:
- Later stages of pregnancy
- Irregularly shaped bones in the face
- Swelling of the tonsils and adenoids
- Alcohol consumption
- Antihistamine or sleeping pill use
- Large base of the tongue or unusually large tongue and small mouth
- Congestion from allergies or a cold
- Swollen areas inside the mouth (including the uvula and soft palate)
Snoring by itself — when it’s not a symptom of a medical problem like sleep apnea — may not pose any physical risk. But it can cause problems when sleeping in a room with your spouse or bed partner. Snoring can affect your partner’s sleep and trigger a number of problems caused by sleep deficiency.
What are the symptoms of snoring?
People who snore make a vibrating, rattling, noisy sound while breathing during sleep. It may be a symptom of sleep apnea. Other symptoms of sleep apnea may include:
- Excessive daytime sleepiness
- Morning headaches
- Recent weight gain
- Awakening in the morning not feeling rested
- Awaking at night feeling confused
- Change in your level of attention, concentration, or memory
- Observed pauses in breathing during sleep
How is snoring diagnosed?
A doctor may run a few tests or perform a sleep study to diagnose the significance of snoring, particularly if he or she suspects sleep apnea. An ear nose and throat specialist (otolaryngologist) may examine your throat and neck and the inside of your mouth to diagnose the cause of snoring.
To find out if your snoring could be caused by a health problem, a doctor may ask questions about:
- Volume and frequency of your snoring
- Sleep positions that make your snoring worse
- Problems from affected sleep, including feeling sleepy during the day or difficulty with memory or concentration
- Any history that you have temporarily stopped breathing during sleep
How is snoring treated?
If your snoring is affecting your sleep (or your partner’s), your doctor may fit you with a dental device to keep your tongue from blocking your airway. Losing weight can also help treat snoring. Some people may need surgery to correct a blockage in the airway that’s causing the snoring.
If sleep apnea is the cause of your snoring, you may need to sleep in a mask connected to a CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) device. This device helps minimize snoring and maintain breathing while you sleep.
What are the complications of snoring?
Snoring can affect your sleep, leaving you dragging the next day. Sleep apnea can be a dangerous condition. In sleep apnea, you stop breathing for at least 10 seconds per episode and experience on average more than 5 episodes per hour at night. Sleep apnea and inadequate sleep can make it difficult for you to think clearly and complete daily responsibilities. If you have sleep apnea that goes untreated, long-term complications can include an enlarged heart and high blood pressure.
Can snoring be prevented?
Preparations before bedtime and a few changes to your sleep style can help prevent or reduce snoring. Try these tips:
- Use nasal strips (without medicine) that allow more air into the nostrils.
- Don’t drink alcohol or take a sedative just before bedtime.
- Maintain a healthy weight; work to drop excess pounds.
- Try sleeping on your side instead of on your back.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Sleep apnea can be serious. Your doctor should evaluate any snoring that causes daytime sleepiness or that affects your ability to think clearly. If your partner hears you stop breathing during the night, call your doctor to see if sleep apnea is to blame.
Your sleep is nothing to take lightly. Your doctor can help diagnose any potential medical conditions affecting your sleep and find ways to minimize snoring to help you—and your partner—get a restful night’s sleep.
- It’s often hard to tell why one person snores and another one doesn’t.
- Men tend to snore more often than women.
- Sleep apnea can be a dangerous condition.
- If sleep apnea goes untreated, long-term complications can include an enlarged heart and high blood pressure.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.